Author: David Beckham
Proofreader: Cat Stu / Editor: Yakult
校对：Cat Stu /编辑：Yakult
Just a few years ago, the most familiar old friend of Beijing residents in the autumn and winter seasons was haze. It is not new to encounter multiple consecutive haze days in a winter. In the days of severe pollution, the entire city was shrouded in a gray-black dome. No one could see that it was a world-class modern city. Instead, they thought it was a post-industrial cyberpunk site.
In those few years, the Beijing style was hard to show
It's not an exaggeration to call "Haze City"
(Picture: tung/Picture Chong Creative)▼
It’s not just Beijing that is affected by the smog.
However, there is no smog on the front window of the car
(Picture: xiaosan/Picture Chong Creative)▼
A few years have passed, but everyone clearly feels that the foggy days have become less. The typical examples are Beijing, Lanzhou, and Chengdu, three cities that were plagued by air pollution. Behind them are the many efforts China has made in air pollution control over the past few years.
Generally speaking, the air pollution in a city,
The capital is like a "wonderland", but it affects flying
(Picture: Feel free to walk around/Creative Drawing)▼
Unfortunately, the three cities of Beijing, Lanzhou, and Chengdu are all cities with high emissions and poor diffusion conditions.
Take Beijing as an example. After the reform and opening up, the capital has grown rapidly. In the past 20 years, the total economic volume has increased by 10 times, the number of private vehicles has increased by 22 times, the energy consumption has increased by nearly 90%, and the population has increased by nearly 60%. And because of the characteristics of China’s energy structure,
Those two years were really scary
(January 2013, North China Plain, picture from: NASA)▼
Lanzhou and Chengdu are not too much,
Lanzhou is an industrial system dominated by petroleum, chemical industry, machinery, and metallurgy.
It is also one of the production bases of my country's heavy chemical industry and energy
But these are also industries with more serious pollution
(Picture: Eyes of Solidification/ Creative Ideas)▼
at the same time,
How much haze is exhausted, can’t get out
(In May 2011, Sichuan Basin, picture from: NASA)▼
Compared to those cities with only emission pressure or underdeveloped industries, it is not surprising that these three cities "stand out".
However, what many people did not expect was that in the air quality evaluations in recent years,
Score from the improvement in air quality
The achievements of these three cities are indeed impressive in large cities
(Data: Asia Clean Air Center)▼
According to the statistics of the Lanzhou Ecological Environment Status Bulletin in 2018 and 2019 issued by the Lanzhou Ecological Environment Bureau,
As early as 2015, Lanzhou City won the "Today's Reform and Progress Award" at the Paris Climate Conference
Remove awards or data
The people of Lanzhou must have the most intuitive feelings about air quality
(photo: Wang Yunjiang / tuchong creative)
(photo: Wang Y UN将 / 图虫creative)
In the past three years, Beijing has rarely seen consecutive haze days. In the night after the rain, the stars can already be seen through the night sky; the citizens of Chengdu have the opportunity to see the "windows contain the Xiling Qianqiu Snow" again in the urban area. Beautiful view.
From Beijing Lantian occasionally board the hot search
Until the citizens are accustomed to the blue sky
This is the best answer to Beijing's atmospheric governance
(Picture: Xianren Board / Picture Chong Creative)▼
One was released in 2013
Behind Beijing, Lanzhou, and Chengdu, there are also a large number of first- and second-tier industrial cities whose air quality has improved significantly.
The annual report "Atmospheric China 2020: China's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Process" (hereinafter referred to as "Atmospheric China 2020") recently released by the International Environmental Protection Organization Clean Air Asia (Clean Air Asia) summarizes the effective policies in recent years.
国际环境保护组织亚洲清洁空气组织（Clean Air Asia）最近发布的年度报告《 2020年中国大气：中国的空气污染预防和控制过程》（以下简称“ 2020年中国大气”）总结了近年来的有效政策。 。
The report tracks the air quality performance and governance measures of 337 cities in China in the past year
It is not only a summary but also a reflection on the future
These air pollution prevention and control policies and the fact that China’s economy still maintains a relatively fast and positive growth also show that
The "Atmospheric China" series of reports objectively tracked China's air pollution prevention and control process since 2013. Judging from the 2020 report (which actually shows the situation in 2019), China’s air pollution prevention and control work in recent years,
Annual average concentration of PM2.5 in 3 cities from 2013 to 2019
(Data: Asia Clean Air Center)▼
However, this does not mean that in the future, China's air pollution prevention and control will be completely free of hidden concerns.
In 2019, 337 cities across the country continued the momentum of air quality improvement in the past, and more and more cities have met the requirements of the "Ambient Air Quality Standard" (GB3095-2012).
In previous years, five of the six major pollutants were able to achieve a decrease in annual average concentration; but in 2019, only PM10 and SO2 decreased.
Annual average concentration of six standard pollutants in 2018 and 2019
(Photo: Asia Clean Air Center)▼
Environmental improvement began to slow down,
Take PM2.5, which everyone is most concerned about, for example. Although the annual average concentration in Beijing fell to 42 micrograms/cubic meter in 2019, the lowest value since monitoring in 2013.
Pay attention to the concentration of PM2.5 every day
When the blue sky and white clouds appeared frequently, the public’s anxiety about air pollution was reduced.
But the road to governance is a long way to go
(picture: sved Oliver / toong creative)
Another concern is that while the concentration of other pollutants has improved,
The ozone in the sky about 30 kilometers above the ground constitutes an ozone layer that blocks ultraviolet rays and is a circle that is beneficial to the earth's life. But if there is a lot of ozone near the ground, it’s not good news.
The ozone in the sky is the sunscreen of the earth
Over the years, it has been hurt by the large-scale application of Freon
At the same time, harmful ozone near the ground is increasing
Since my country's comprehensive monitoring of ozone in 2013, the overall annual average concentration of ozone in cities across the country has been rising. And "Atmospheric China 2020" shows that in 2019,
These near-ground ozone are often produced through secondary reactions. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic pollutants (VOCs) emitted from coal burning, motor vehicle exhaust, petrochemicals, etc., will generate ozone when exposed to ultraviolet light.
When the accelerator is stepped on, hundreds of compounds are discharged into the air
And the car ownership is increasing year by year
It also makes the air quality suffer a greater test
(photo: Wang Zhiyong 577 / tuchong creative)
This also means,
China's atmospheric environmental governance has really entered the deep water area by now.
In general, from the "Ten Atmospheres" in 2013 to the "Three-Year Action Plan for Winning the Blue Sky Defense" in 2018,
In the next step, Chinese society will continue to pay attention to air quality.
Student dormitory equipped with solar energy devices at Beijing Jiaotong University
(photo: Oriental Taibai / tuchong creativity)
In 2020, the "13th Five-Year Plan" will end soon, and the "14th Five-Year Plan" will come out soon. It is not difficult to imagine that air pollution control will still be an important part of it.
"Atmospheric China 2020" also provides advice and suggestions on air pollution related policies during the 14th Five-Year Plan.
For example, in view of the slowing down of PM2.5 concentration and the continuous increase of ozone, the two pollutants can be treated together, and the precursor pollutants NOx and VOCs that form ozone can be "dual controlled and double reduced".
Of course, the management of deep water areas must be meticulous and scientific, which also puts forward higher requirements for the monitoring, collection, and disclosure of pollutant data.
Of course, for some major pollution sources,
One after another, powerful electric vehicles come out
Plus the country's support policy for the new energy industry
It's also a great improvement in environmental protection
(Picture: makingultimate/Picture Worm Creative)▼
. In the past few years, there have been some advanced practices, such as controlling the total coal consumption and promoting the use of clean coal, which can effectively reduce the pollutants brought by coal-related industries. With the gradual elimination of outdated production capacity and the expansion of railway transportation capacity to replace road transportation, measures such as the orderly progress,
China's energy consumption structure in 2018 and 2019
Every bit of progress is paving the way for a better future for mankind
(Photo: Asia Clean Air Center)▼
This national environmental protection campaign is also closely related to everyone living on this land. Gather sand into a tower,
For a responsible and environmentally conscious young man,
Shared bicycles did not follow the failure of individual companies
And disappeared from the public's sight
Instead, it has become a brick of China's air governance through experience accumulation
(Picture: Figure Worm Creative)▼
There are many environmentally friendly lifestyles to improve everyone’s living environment,